The Spark of Invention

A Time/Qualcomm poll reveals a world of opinions about who inventors are, how they do their work and which countries used to be—and will be—the most inventive

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Illustration by Andrew B. Myers for TIME

The Incubator of Ideas
If inventiveness is not a universally shared skill—and like it or not, it isn’t—we all at least start off with the same piece of basic equipment, which is to say a brain. The most plodding kinds of creative thought—the ones everyone can manage—are the kinds that draw inevitable conclusions from obvious clues. Wood burns, stones don’t. What are you going to build your fireplace out of? Crops grow better where manure has been dropped. How about saving some up and spreading it around?

But there are the subtler kinds of connections too—the kinds that lie about in plain sight but are usually missed. Milkmaids tended not to get smallpox, but they did get cowpox on their hands—the result of so much up-close work with cattle. Might infection with one illness protect you from the other? It seemed that way to Edward Jenner, and in 1796 he used that insight to invent the first smallpox vaccine. Flies seemed strangely drawn to the urine of a dog whose pancreas had been removed for study. Might there be something in the urine—sugar, say—that was responsible? That was the best guess of German researchers Joseph von Mering and Oscar Winkowski, who in 1889 discovered the link between the pancreas and diabetes.

“When insights like this come to you, you’re usually confident right away that they’re correct,” says Mark Beeman, a professor of neuro­science at Northwestern University in Illinois. “That’s because your unconscious mind has connected several loosely linked puzzle pieces. They only get passed up to your consciousness if everything fits well.”

In most cases, the TIME poll found, people agree that not every­one has the creative chops to make these kinds of ingenious connections. On average, 65% of respondents thought inventors were special people and only 35% thought anyone could be one. Among adult members of the millennial cohort—people born from 1980 to the early 2000s—the figure jumped a bit, to 42%, possibly because of the factory-­loaded cockiness of the young, possibly too because so many of the ways we create are Internet-­centric, and millennials tend to be better in that medium than anyone else.

Country by country, the numbers changed considerably. Americans hewed pretty closely to the global average, with 62% saying inventors were special people. But in Russia—a country that despite its 70 years as a supposedly classless society has always been ruled by elites—the number soared to 90%. In South Korea, one of the creative powerhouses of East Asia, there was no such humility, with only 32% thinking inventors have a special quality that others don’t.

Similar disparities emerged when people were asked whether, regardless of how special they thought inventors were, they themselves might be inventors. Among South Koreans, 94% said yes, they were inventors, compared with 26% of Americans and 33% of Russians. That last one is a delightful paradox, since it means one-third of all Russians consider themselves part of a minority that they also believe can accommodate only 1 out of 10 of them.

The most consistently high scores in the tricky could-I-be-an-inventor category were among the powerful business decision­makers in emerging countries—72% in Indonesia, 67% in India, 62% in Brazil. That’s not hard to understand. When you’re a big player in an economy that’s growing fast and has room to continue, you are probably already doing a lot of creating. It’s the only way to survive. “The culture makes a big difference,” says Notre Dame University’s David Watson, a personality psychologist who studies creativity. “The extent to which inventiveness is encouraged is critical.”

(MORE: The TIME Invention Poll)

The Roots of Genius
There are deeper—and far ­older—factors than the current state of its national economy that influence any one country’s ability to be creative. A vibrant educational system complete with globally competitive universities would seem to be a threshold requirement for an inventive culture. But that’s by no means what everybody believes. Only 32% of respondents in emerging nations and 23% in developed nations said education was a sine qua non for invention. The highest scorers in that category were Brazil, South Africa and Kenya, at 38%, 43% and 38%, respectively; the low scorers included Indonesia, South Korea and Singapore, at 20%, 19% and 18%. That seems precisely the opposite of what it should be, given that the last three countries have long histories of prioritizing education and the first three not so much. But the explanation may lie in the kinds of educational systems East Asia often fosters.

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7 comments
argieguy
argieguy

How come no mention to Israel?? The country where most of the latest technology developments have taken place...

They are called the Start-up Nation for something...

Not even taken the time to include them on the polls.

Would have been nice to see what they think about this issue.

RobertoKJ
RobertoKJ

Its a remarkable poll, I come from a Developing country Ecuador, and as much as you said, we tend to believe that rigorous  higher education plus  Patent-protective policies are the key factors of development, or as I would like to call it from now on; Inventiveness.

PocoHontas
PocoHontas

Patriotic TiME magazine claims the US was the most inventive nation of the 20th century. They conveniently overlook that for most of the 20th century it was Germany that led the Science Nobel Prize count; Americans caught up with Germans only in the 1970s (despite the US being much bigger).

TIME will never admit that for each American invention one can find three bigger truly fundamental inventions from Germany, for example:

First usable combustion engines (Otto, Diesel), first practical cars (Benz), first jetplane (von Ohain), first nuclear power (Hahn), first program-controlled computers (Zuse), most of modern physics, including the theory of general relativity (Einstein) and quantum physics (Planck), radio waves (Hertz), first TV patents (Nipkow) and TV screens (Braun), X-rays (Roentgen), first rockets in space (von Braun), population explosion (driven by Haber-Bosch process), and thousands of other essential inventions. Not mentioning older world-changing German inventions such as the printing press.

TIME celebrates Edison but doesn't mention that for most of his patents Edison just put his name on inventions of his employees (lots of literature on this).

To solidify its claims, TIME conducts a survey of 18-24 old kids (!) who think the cell phone is the biggest invention ever, although it is basically a small scale computer (Zuse) using radio waves (Hertz) for communication.

Sure, many of these kids don't care for history, and don't know that they wouldn't even exist without the Haber-Bosch process for making artificial fertiliser, often called the most influential invention of the 20th century, because half of the world's population would die without it. A thousand times more important than the cell phone!


TIME's poll is as valuable as a poll asking little boys whether their dad is the strongest man in the world. Many will say yes. But sometimes you better ask experts.

PrachU
PrachU

Ya the author seems a very patriotic  American and apparently doesnt like tough EU competitors like Germany & UK, hardly even mentioning and taking digs at arch rivals Russia wheresoever possible..


PeterJamesHerz
PeterJamesHerz

Notable German inventions and discoveries: nuclear weapons, genetics, binary, computers, mp3s, automobiles/engines, printing press, photographic chemicals, rocket flight, assault rifle, cocaine, jet engines, uranium, quantum physics, mammalian ovum, comics, set theory, bicycles, general relativity, light bulb, watch, telegraph, fax machine, aspirin, radio waves, TV, linguistics (Grimm), nuclear chemistry, video signals/digital recording (Kietz), calculus, wing/aviation, Mach speed, archaeology (Troy), medical x-rays, sound-on-film, neon signs (Geissler tube), first globe model (Erdapfel, 1492), radar, submarine, telephone, and modern optics.  Its funny though that according to this article America takes the trophy? lol

AnumakondaJagadeesh
AnumakondaJagadeesh

Outstanding article on Inventor and Inventions.


Dr.A.Jagadeesh  Nellore(AP),India

khi.mah.uk
khi.mah.uk

Most inventions are just combinations of technologies. Take the Vacuum cleaner, just a bag and a fan. If you join a bag and a fan you sort of get a floating flag. If you arrange it in a specific way you get a Vacuum which forces dirt into the bag.

Today, it seems obvious to us but back then it was not. Had there been some sort of similar idea in Industrial use then it would not have been patentable. i.e. a Industrial saw collecting machine employing a similar principle.

Today, the Patent process has become pathetic due to a select few stupid pathetic corporations that seem to think everything is innovative. For example if some process sends Voice and Text over a network in a certain way then the addition of Video using the same principle would not be innovative.

The same goes for when some principle that works on the PC is applied to mobile phones. Today’s mobiles are just a combination of a computer and a telephone. Even a poor quality engineer knows his field and is able to apply techniques from PCs to mobiles. The mere fact of just taking something from the PC and putting it onto a mobile is not innovative. If some skilful technique is used for miniaturization then that may be patentable. The miniaturization technique only!

The whole system has become unworkable because of a select few stupid pathetic corporations!